Chronic prostatitis is a serious disease that occurs with periodic exacerbations, which requires complex long-term treatment. Inadequate therapy or its absence leads to the development of various complications, one of which is calculous prostatitis, one of the most serious forms of the disease. Calculus prostatitis develops from indolent congestive prostatitis and is diagnosed in men over 65 years of age.
Any form of prostatitis is characterized by inflammation in the prostate, which can be acute or chronic. Calculus prostatitis is a form of inflammation caused by the presence of stones (stones) in the vas deferens of the prostate.
Chronic calculous prostatitis is a rare complicated inflammation of the prostate. It is preceded by many years of inadequate therapy for chronic congestive prostatitis or prostate adenoma.
In most cases, a complication is found in men who have tried to treat prostatitis on their own or have not followed the recommendations of the treating physician. Interruption of the course of therapy at will, lack of complex treatment or uncontrolled independent drug intake lead to the development of complications. Often, the calculating form of inflammation of the prostate develops against the background of concomitant pathologies of the kidneys and urinary system.
The formation of stones in the prostate can be due to two factors. The first of these is urolithiasis. In this case, they speak of secondary or false stones that do not form in the prostate, but migrate to it by a descending path along with the urine. This occurs against the background of a violation of the urinary system and as a result of a decrease in the tone of the prostate, which causes the reverse reflux of urine with stone fragments.
Primary or true stones are formed directly in the prostate. This is due to a chronic violation of organ trophism. At the same time, salts and phosphates accumulate in the prostate, which, against the background of the thickening of the secretion of the gland, forms dense deposits of salt - stones.
Stone prostatitis does not occur instantly. This is often a consequence of failing to treat chronic prostate inflammation.
Reasons for the development of the disease
The development of calculous prostatitis is due to a long-term dysfunction of the prostate or concomitant diseases of the male genital area. The factors that provoke the development of this form of the disease can be:
- congestive prostatitis with a chronic course;
- chronic infectious prostatitis;
- malignant neoplasms in the body;
- urolithiasis disease;
- kidney rupture.
The structure of stones can be organic and inorganic, their diameter rarely exceeds 4 mm. The organic structure of the stones is due to the stagnation of the prostate secret, such stones are formed directly in the prostate secret.
Inorganic stones enter the prostate as a result of urethral-prostatic reflux. This phenomenon is observed when the tone of the prostate is weakened and consists of the reflux of urine from the urethra into the ducts of the prostate. As a result, dense stones are formed, made up of salts and phosphates, which are excreted from the body with the urine.
Among the factors that predispose to the development of calculous prostatitis, there is a violation of lifestyle against the background of chronic inflammation in the prostate. This includes an unbalanced diet rich in fatty and heavy foods, the lack of a regular sex life.
Stone prostatitis is diagnosed in men who have been living with chronic prostatitis for more than 10 years. In many ways, the development of this form of the disease is associated with incorrect or premature treatment of a slow inflammatory process.
Urolithiasis increases the likelihood of calculous prostatitis.
The symptoms and treatment of chronic calculous prostatitis are not very different from the signs of inflammation in the context of congestion in Organs pelvic organs. Patient complaints include:
- frequent urge to urinate;
- feeling of heaviness in the rectum;
- pain after urinating;
- weakening of potency;
- ejaculation disorders;
- blood in urine and semen.
It is the presence of blood in the urine or seminal fluid that makes it possible to suspect the calculating form of the disease before a visit to the doctor. At the moment of tension of the corresponding muscles, during ejaculation or urination, the stones move and damage the prostate tissues. As a result, blood is found in the urine.
As a rule, the calculus form of prostatitis is always accompanied by a violation of sexual function. This can manifest as a weakening of potency and problems with ejaculation. Men often complain about the impossibility of reaching climax during intercourse.
However, in some cases, calculous prostatitis can be asymptomatic. This is observed in the formation of small stones.
A distinctive feature of this form of prostatitis is the presence of blood in the urine.
The diagnosis of calculous prostatitis is based on the same tests that reveal chronic inflammation.
To make a diagnosis, you must pass the following tests:
- rectal palpation of the prostate;
- Ultrasound or TRUS;
- magnetic resonance;
- Analysis of prostatic secretion.
During rectal palpation of the organ, the doctor clearly feels the heterogeneity of the prostate, which is manifested by the presence of tubercles and depressions in the organ. If the stones are large, they are clearly felt on palpation. In addition, massage of the prostate in the presence of stones can be painful and be accompanied by the release of blood after manipulation, due to damage to the tissues of the organ due to the presence of dense deposits of salt.
In ultrasound or TRUS, stones are distinguished by increased echogenicity. This exam allows you to accurately assess the location of the stones, their size, contours and even structure.
In addition, ultrasound of the kidneys and urethrography may be necessary to exclude the secondary nature of stone formation in the context of diseases of the urinary system.
On ultrasound, the presence of stones, their location and size are well determined.
The treatment of calculous prostatitis is a long process. Therapy is aimed at stopping inflammation, relieving symptoms, destroying stones and preventing their re-formation. As a rule, the course of treatment lasts at least a month.
The treatment of calculous prostatitis begins with symptomatic therapy, which is based on the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and alpha-blockers. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs relieve pain and improve well-being. Antibacterial therapy is carried out only if calculous prostatitis develops against the background of infectious inflammation in the prostate and pathogenic microorganisms are detected during the examination. Preparations from the group of alpha-blockers are indicated for the development of urinary disorders. These medications relax the bladder and make it easier for urine to pass.
An important role in the treatment of calculous prostatitis is given to physiotherapy, aimed at improving prostate trophism. Electrophoresis, magnetotherapy, shock wave therapy are practiced.
If the calculations are large, you can perform an operation to remove them. Minimally invasive methods and laser surgery are commonly used.
Medium-sized stones are successfully crushed by a laser. This procedure is performed on an outpatient basis, is absolutely painless and takes no more than 20 minutes. If there are several stones, a course of procedures is prescribed.
With calculous prostatitis, prostate massage is prohibited as this leads to organ tissue damage when stones are triggered.
How to cure calculous prostatitis - depends on the size of the stones and the symptoms of the disease. With small stones, treatment is done with the help of medication and physiotherapy, aiming, among other things, at crushing stones. Large stones are surgically removed. The operation is performed under anesthesia.
Calculus prostatitis is dangerous with the risk of developing a prostate abscess. Such a complication requires immediate hospitalization and surgical intervention, otherwise the abscess can open on its own, which leads to the development of sepsis.
The lack of adequate and timely therapy can lead to the development of paraproctitis. This disease is characterized by inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue that surrounds the rectum. Purulent inflammation can have dangerous consequences, even sepsis and infection of the whole organism.
One of the most common complications in the absence of timely treatment of calculous prostatitis is erectile dysfunction. Often, the presence of prostate stones leads to infertility.
The likelihood of complications is determined during examination and diagnosis. Additionally, during the treatment of calculous prostatitis, the patient undergoes regular ultrasound and analysis of prostatic secretion to assess the effectiveness of the chosen treatment regimen.
The most common consequence is a violation of potency.
Although stone prostatitis is curable, the attending physician always warns of the risk of stone recurrence. To prevent this from happening, a man needs to follow some recommendations.
Prevention of recurrence of the disease is reduced to a balanced diet, regular sexual activity. Fatty and spicy foods that negatively affect the functioning of the urinary system should be avoided. Be sure to kick bad habits and exercise regularly to avoid stagnation of blood and lymph in your pelvic organs.
As calculous prostatitis is more often a complication of chronic prostatitis, disease-specific prevention is reduced to timely treatment of prostate inflammation. You should follow your doctor's recommendations and not try to treat prostatitis on your own.
Often, men facing this disease do not pay proper attention to the symptoms, waiting for the discomfort to pass by itself. As a result, prostatitis is untreated and may continue latently for many years, periodically manifesting with exacerbations. It is important to understand that a timely visit to a doctor and proper therapy will alleviate the condition within a few months.
Another common mistake that leads to the development of calculous prostatitis is stopping treatment of chronic inflammation at the first improvement. As a result, the disease remains untreated and will definitely make itself felt when immunity is reduced.
So, to avoid the formation of stones in the prostate, you should only follow a few rules:
- consult a doctor in a timely manner;
- strictly follow the instructions of a specialist;
- don't let the disease run its course.
Every man who has had prostatitis should undergo an annual examination by a urologist.